ID Artigo: 858
Titulo: Water Management Strategies to combat scarcity in Semi-arid and Mediterranean regions: differences and similarities
Resumo: At the beginning of the 21st century scarcity of water is a reality and constitutes a threat to humanity and to the biosphere. Water scarcity mainly occurs in the arid/semiarid regions, which cover approximately 40% of word surface. Water scarcity is also characteristic of Mediterranean, where most of streams are temporary. The available water per capita is an indicator of water scarcity. It is calculated by the ratio of the total renewable water by the number of inhabitants. When analyzing water scarcity, there are 2 dimensions to be considered: the lack of the resource itself (first order scarcity); and the lack of social capacities to manage water (second order scarcity). This explains why many countries suffer from this second scarcity and should focus its efforts to promote a better development pattern. It has become urgent to adopt simple low-cost techniques which allow people who live in regions of scarcity to obtain water. The objective of this paper is to discuss the implementation of those techniques based on two basic points: (i) improve the quality of the water with a consequent reduction in diseases; (ii) transmit knowledge about the management of water resources and of biodiversity, in equilibrium with the environment.
Palavras Chave: Water scarcity; Semiarid and Mediterranean regions; low-cost techniques; water resources management